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Медицинская иммунология

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ИММУНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ АСПЕКТЫ ЭССЕНЦИАЛЬНОЙ ГИПЕРТЕНЗИИ

Аннотация

Согласно современным представлениям об этиопатогенезе эссенциальной гипертензии, важную роль в её развитии принадлежит клеткам иммунной системы. Медиаторы, продуцируемые иммунокомпетентными клетками, принимают участие в возникновении и поддержании состояния хронического системного воспаления и способствуют развитию сосудистого ремоделирования, являющегося важным звеном патогенеза заболевания и поражения органов-мишеней. Иммунные механизмы, лежащие в основе повышения артериального давления, включают в себя активацию клеток врожденного и приобретенного иммунитета. Нарушение целостности эндотелия сосудов, запускающее каскад воспалительных реакций, вызывает миграцию в очаг повреждения клеток иммунной системы, привлеченных хемокинами и молекулами адгезии. Инфильтрация макрофагами периваскулярной ткани способствует нарушению вазодилатации и повреждению органов-мишеней благодаря выработке активных форм кислорода. Ангиотензин II вызывает также инфильтацию периваскулярной жировой ткани и адвентиции Т-лимфоцитами и повышенную выработку фактора некроза опухолей альфа и интерферона гамма. Кроме того, Т-лимфоциты экспрессируют минералокортикоидный рецептор, участвующий в развитии системной гипертензии. Важная роль в прогрессировании гипертензии принадлежит интерлейкину-17, участвующему в развитии повышенного артериального давления и ремоделирования сосудов. В обзоре также представлены данные о влиянии кишечной микрофлоры на регуляцию артериального давления и развитие гипертензии.

Об авторе

Янина Римовна Тимашева
Институт биохимии и генетики Уфимского федерального исследовательского центра Российской академии наук, Башкирский государственный медицинский университет
Россия
кандидат медицинских наук, научный сотрудник, Институт биохимии и генетики Уфимского федерального исследовательского центра Российской академии наук, доцент кафедры медицинской генетики и фундаментальной медицины ИДПО,  ФГБОУ ВО «Башкирский государственный медицинский университет»


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Тимашева Я.Р. ИММУНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ АСПЕКТЫ ЭССЕНЦИАЛЬНОЙ ГИПЕРТЕНЗИИ. Медицинская иммунология. 0;.

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