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Медицинская иммунология

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МЕХАНИЗМЫ ДЕЙСТВИЯ ВИТАМИНА D НА ИММУННУЮ СИСТЕМУ

https://doi.org/10.15789/1563-0625-2014-6-499-530

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Аннотация

Помимо хорошо известного влияния на метаболизм костной ткани витамин D (VD) вовлечен во множество других процессов в организме человека, и в том числе – в регуляцию иммунных реакций. Действие VD осуществляются через его мембранный рецептор, который обнаружен у клеток самых разных органов и тканей человека, в частности у большинства клеток иммунной системы и эпителиальных клеток, выстилающих слизистые. Связавшись с этим рецептором, VD идет в цитоплазму, где образует комплекс с витамином А и его рецептором. Данный комплекс оказывает или ингибирующее, или усиливающее влияние на транскрипцию сотен генов в ядерной ДНК, среди которых и те, что контролируют клеточный рост, дифференцировку, апоптоз и препятствуют злокачественному росту и ангиогенезу. Установлены следующие эффекты VD в отношении иммунной системы: он ослабляет презентацию антигена дендритными клетками, тормозит Th1-клеточную дифференцировку и производство Th1-цитокинов, сдвигает баланс Th1-/Th2-клеточных ответов в направлении Th2-ответа, оказывает ингибирующее влияние на клетки Th17, способствует развитию Treg-клеток и повышению их активности. Кроме того, VD усиливает выработку «эндогенных антибиотиков», способных оказывать мощное действие на грам-положительные и грам-отрицательные бактерии, грибы и вирусы. Выясняется, что VD очень важен для предотвращения аутоиммунных и атопических заболеваний: рассеянного склероза, ревматоидного артрита, инсулин-зависимого диабета, болезни Крона, неспецифического язвенного колита; предупреждает развитие астмы у детей, оказывается действенным средством профилактики и симптоматического лечения хронических обструктивных заболеваний легких, защищает от широкого спектра инфекций, включая туберкулез, проказу и респираторные инфекции; и препятствует развитию опухолей в ряде органов. Гиповитаминоз D, чаще скрытый и не диагностированный, имеется почти у половины населения самых разных стран и является одной из ведущих причин ослабления иммунитета и повышенной заболеваемости. Его выявление, профилактика и лечение должны быть в числе важнейших задач здравоохранения в России.

Об авторе

С. А. Снопов
ФГБУН «Институт цитологии РАН», Санкт-Петербург, Россия
Россия

194064, Россия, Санкт-Петербург, Тихорецкий пр., 4. Тел.: 8 (812) 297-42-34



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Снопов С.А. МЕХАНИЗМЫ ДЕЙСТВИЯ ВИТАМИНА D НА ИММУННУЮ СИСТЕМУ. Медицинская иммунология. 2014;16(6):499-530. https://doi.org/10.15789/1563-0625-2014-6-499-530

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Snopov S.A. MECHANISMS OF VITAMIN D ACTION ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. Medical Immunology (Russia). 2014;16(6):499-530. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.15789/1563-0625-2014-6-499-530

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