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Медицинская иммунология

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ИММУНОГЛОБУЛИН А (IgA) И ЕГО РЕЦЕПТОРЫ

https://doi.org/10.15789/1563-0625-2006-4-483-500

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Аннотация

Резюме. Общий объем продукции IgA в организме человека составляет 3-5 г в сутки и превышает выработку Ig остальных классов, вместе взятых. IgA представлен в организме девятью структурными вариантами. Его молекулы относятся к двум подклассам, IgA1 и IgA2, второй имеет два аллотипа. В сыворотке крови человека преобладают мономеры IgA1, синтезируемые клетками костного мозга. Лимфоидные ткани, ассоциированные со слизистыми, продуцируют димерные молекулы IgA1 и IgA2. В состав их входит дополнительная полипептидная J-цепь. При переносе через слой эпителия на поверхность слизистой к димерному IgA ковалентно присоединяется внеклеточный участок рецептора полимерных Ig (pIgR), который становится секреторным компонентом, частью молекулы секреторного IgA (sIgA). Основной функцией sIgA является связывание бактерий и вирусов на поверхности слизистых оболочек, препятствующее попаданию патогенов во внутреннюю среду организма (иммунное исключение). При переносе через эпителий IgA может нейтрализовать проникшие в клетки вирусы, а также связывать и выносить на поверхность слизистых, т. е. экскретировать белки и иные антигены. Лейкоцитарный рецептор IgA (FcαRI, CD89) экспрессирован на нейтрофилах, эозинофилах, моноцитах-макрофагах, дендритных и купферовских клетках. Цитоплазматический домен FcαRI лишен активационного ITAM-мотива. Для передачи сигнала используется ассоциированная с FcαRI γ-цепь Fcγ-рецептора, благодаря которой связывание IgA приводит к активации фагоцитоза, эндоцитоза, презентации антигена, синтеза провоспалительных медиаторов и других функций. Рецептор Fcα/μR структурно гомологичен pIgR, способен связывать IgA и IgM, но экспрессируется только на мембране зрелых В-лимфоцитов и макрофагов. Описано взаимодействие IgA с рецепторами асиалогликопротеинов, трансферрина (CD71) и некоторыми другими молекулами, роль которых в иммунной защите и в развитии патологических процессов пока не определена. Работа выполнена при поддержке РФФИ (грант № 05-04-48860).

Об авторах

В. Б. Климович
Центральный научно-исследовательский рентгено-радиологический институт МЗ РФ, Санкт-Петербург
Россия

лаборатория гибридомной технологии

197758, СПетербург, Песочный, д.2, Ленинградская ул., д. 70/4



М. П. Самойлович
Центральный научно-исследовательский рентгено-радиологический институт МЗ РФ, Санкт-Петербург
Россия


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Для цитирования:


Климович В.Б., Самойлович М.П. ИММУНОГЛОБУЛИН А (IgA) И ЕГО РЕЦЕПТОРЫ. Медицинская иммунология. 2006;8(4):483-500. https://doi.org/10.15789/1563-0625-2006-4-483-500

For citation:


Klimovich V.B., Samoilovich M.P. IMMUNOGLOBULIN A (IgA) AND ITS RECEPTORS. Medical Immunology (Russia). 2006;8(4):483-500. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.15789/1563-0625-2006-4-483-500

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