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Медицинская иммунология

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Естественные киллеры: происхождение, фенотип, функции.

https://doi.org/10.15789/1563-0625-NKC-2330

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Аннотация

NK-клетки (от Natural killer), или естественные киллеры, представляют собой группу лимфоцитов врожденного иммунитета, образующихся в костном мозге. Выделение NK-клеток в отдельную популяцию лимфоцитов связано с открытием их способности индуцировать гибель опухолевых клеток без предварительной сенсибилизации. В настоящем обзоре предпринята попытка систематизации представленных в литературе многочисленных данных о биологии NK-клеток. Авторами рассмотрены этапы дифференцировки NK-клеток из общего лимфоидного предшественника (CLP) в костном мозге, описаны две функционально различные популяции зрелых NK-клеток – CD56brightCDl6- и CD56dimCD16+. Кроме того, обсуждается роль цитокинов и хемокинов в развитии NK-клеток. В обзоре собраны данные о спектре экспрессируемых NK-клетками адгезионных молекул (LFA-1, LFA-2, LFA-3; αMβ2, αXβ2, L-selectin, VLA-4, VLA-5; PECAM-1; CEACAM-1), цитокиновых рецепторов (IL-1R, IL-2ra, IL-2Rb/IL-2Rc, IL-6Rα, IL-7Ra, IL-8R, IL-10R, IL-12Rβ1, IL-15ra, IL-18R, IL-21ra, IFNGR2, TGFBR, c-Kit, CXCR1, CXCR3, CXCR4, CCR4, CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, IChemR23, CX3CR1), а также рецепторов, регулирующих активность NK-клеток (LILRB1, LILRB2, LILRB4; KIR2DL1-5; KIR2DS1-5; KIR3DL1-3; KIR3DS1; NKG2A, NKG2C, NKG2D; Siglec7, Siglec9; CD16; NKRP-1; TIGIT; TACTILE; NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, NKp80; LAIR-1; PD-1; TIM-3; 2B4; TLR1-9). Авторами также рассмотрены механизмы реализации NK-клетками цитотоксической активности, в том числе за счет экспрессии MHC-I-специфических рецепторов, Fc-рецепторов CD16, взаимодействия рецепторов и лигандов апоптоза (Fas-FasL и TRAIL-TRAILR), а также других рецепторов. В обзоре подробно описано строение иммунологического синапса между NK-клеткой и клеткой-мишенью, рецепторные взаимодействия и роль цитоскелета при его формировании. Помимо активирующего иммунологического синапса, в обзоре описывается ингибирующий вариант, а также приведен пример регуляции активности NK-клеток посредством ингибирующего синапса. Авторами суммированы данные о способах экзоцитоза литических гранул NK-клетками, включающих полное или частичное слияние везикул с плазматической мембраной, экзоцитоз везикул, содержащих перфорин и FasL, и образование микровезикул, содержащих гранзим B. В обзоре описаны данные о способности NK-клеток сохранять активированное состояние в течение продолжительного времени, а также поддерживать контакт одновременно с несколькими мишенями. Помимо функций, свойственных естественным киллерам как клеткам врожденного иммунитета, авторы указывают на их способность проявлять черты клеток адаптивного иммунитета. В целом, разнообразие механизмов, регулирующих активность NK-клеток, дополняет специфические функции лимфоцитов, что делает работу иммунной системы более эффективной.

 

Об авторах

Е. В. Тыщук
ФГБНУ Научно-исследовательский институт акушерства, гинекологии и репродуктологии имени Д.О. Отта
Россия

Тыщук Елизавета Владимировна – лаборант-исследователь лаборатории межклеточных взаимодействий, отдел иммунологии и межклеточных взаимодействий.

199034, Санкт-Петербург, Менделеевская линия, 3. Тел.: 8 (931) 963-85-78


Конфликт интересов:

нет



В. А. Михайлова
ФГБНУ Научно-исследовательский институт акушерства, гинекологии и репродуктологии имени Д.О. Отта; ФГБОУ ВО Первый Санкт-Петербургский государственный медицинский университет имени академика И.П. Павлова Министерства здравоохранения РФ
Россия

Кандидат биологических наук, старший научный сотрудник лаборатории межклеточных взаимодействий, отдел иммунологии и межклеточных взаимодействий НИИАГР имени Д.О. Отта; кафедра иммунологии Первый С-ПбГМУ имени академика И.П. Павлова.

Санкт-Петербург


Конфликт интересов:

NK-клетки; дифференцировка; рецепторы; цитотоксичность; иммунологический синапс; цитокины



С. А. Сельков
ФГБНУ Научно-исследовательский институт акушерства, гинекологии и репродуктологии имени Д.О. Отта; ФГБОУ ВО Первый Санкт-Петербургский государственный медицинский университет имени академика И.П. Павлова Министерства здравоохранения РФ
Россия

Доктор медицинских наук, профессор, заслуженный деятель науки РФ, заведующий отделом иммунологии и межклеточных взаимодействий НИИАГР имени Д.О. Отта; профессор кафедры иммунологии Первый С-ПбГМУ имени академика И.П. Павлова.

Санкт-Петербург


Конфликт интересов:

NK-клетки; дифференцировка; рецепторы; цитотоксичность; иммунологический синапс; цитокины



Д. И. Соколов
ФГБНУ Научно-исследовательский институт акушерства, гинекологии и репродуктологии имени Д.О. Отта; ФГБОУ ВО Первый Санкт-Петербургский государственный медицинский университет имени академика И.П. Павлова Министерства здравоохранения РФ
Россия

Доктор биологических наук, заведующий лабораторией межклеточных взаимодействий, отдел иммунологии и межклеточных взаимодействий НИИАГР имени Д.О. Отта; кафедра иммунологии Первый С-ПбГМУ имени академика И.П. Павлова.

Санкт-Петербург


Конфликт интересов:

NK-клетки; дифференцировка; рецепторы; цитотоксичность; иммунологический синапс; цитокины



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Тыщук Е.В., Михайлова В.А., Сельков С.А., Соколов Д.И. Естественные киллеры: происхождение, фенотип, функции. Медицинская иммунология. 2021;23(6):1207-1228. https://doi.org/10.15789/1563-0625-NKC-2330

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Tyshchuk E.V., Mikhailova V.A., Selkov S.A., Sokolov D.I. Natural killer cells: origin, phenotype, function. Medical Immunology (Russia). 2021;23(6):1207-1228. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.15789/1563-0625-NKC-2330

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